Table of Contents

by Aimee Lynn Barrion-Dupo, Cristian C. Lucañas, Ireneo L. Lit Jr., and Annalee S. Hadsall

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 17, Issue 1, DOI:0.26757/pjsb202317001

Abstract (Short Communication)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): December 15, 2023

Abstract

The endemic Jade Vine, Strongylodon macrobotrys A. Gray (Fabaceae) is reported for the first time as a larval host plant for the butterfly, Jamides suidas C. & R. Felder [1865] (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in the Mt. Makiling Forest Reserve. This discovery not only contributes to the missing host plant data of this butterfly but is also the first record of larval feeding on the inflorescence of S. macrobotrys. Meanwhile, adults and larvae of Jamides alecto (C. Felder) were recorded as nectarivore and florivore, respectively, on S. juangonzalezii Hadsall et al.

KEYWORDS: biodiversity, butterfly, herbivory, insect-plant interaction, natural history

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by James Eduard Limbo-Dizon, Glen Carlo C. Aldover, Nikki Heherson A. Dagamac and Reuel M. Bennett

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 17, Issue 1, DOI:0.26757/pjsb202317002

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): December 26, 2023

Abstract

Peronosclerospora philippinensis, or the Philippine corn downy mildew, is an obligate biotrophic pathogen of the Phylum Oomycota. The organism is tagged as the most destructive pathogen of maize worldwide, and recently, there have been a few reports on the re-occurrence of the pathogen from the past decade. Disease control and mitigation through chemical agents have been the current practice; however, it appears that the pathogen is influenced by environmental factors that drive re-emergence. Presented herein is an attempt to predict the potential geographical distribution of P. philippinensis in the Philippines. Two changing climate scenarios were generated, and data suggested a probable expansion of the pathogen to the Southern Tagalog region and some areas in the Visayas region, particularly on Negros Island. Further, the mean diurnal range for the current climate and precipitation in the driest month for the predicted scenarios appeared as the most contributory bioclimatic variables affecting distribution. Generated data suggest a call for a proactive response to the potential disease breakthrough of the Philippine corn downy mildew

KEYWORDS: corn, downy mildew, Oomycota, species distribution, species modeling

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by Paul Jeremy C. Lanete, Sophia Lorraine S. Tendenilla, Maria Sofia Lauren R. Trinidad, and Reuel M. Bennett

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 17, Issue 1, DOI:0.26757/pjsb202317003

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): December 26, 2023

Abstract

The genus Phytophthora, a group of hemibiotrophic species of the Phylum Oomycota, is considered one of the most economically important plant pathogens. Over the last few decades, the number of Phytophthora species has doubled, mainly affecting species delineation and natural groupings. This study aims to revisit the existing enigmatic clade system of Phytophthora and understand its phylogeny. Sequences of ex-type species of Phytophthora and its related genera in the crown Peronosporomycota were obtained in various databases. The data sequences were subjected to phylogenetic analyses and compared to the existing 8 to 10-clade system of Phytophthora. Generated results presented a similar 10-clade system. Further, ancestral trait reconstruction and species delimitation of the group are discussed. The framework proposed in this research will provide an overview of the clade system and the status of some provisionally described species and groups.

KEYWORDS: species delimitation, DNA barcode, molecular phylogeny, oomycetes

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by Nicole Shayne B. Accad, Denise Alyanna C. Bernardo, Vanessa Denise A. Candelaria, Leah Marie L. Deleniana, Jan Camille B. Olivares, Nikki Heherson A. Dagamac, and Thomas Edison E. dela Cruz

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 17, Issue 1,
DOI: 10.26757/pjsb202317004

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): December 19, 2023

Abstract

Roof-top gardens in low- and high-rise urban residential buildings are common in many urban cities for their aesthetic value and perceived health benefits for the building occupants. Leaf litter from plant communities in these gardens offer suitable microclimate conditions and substrates that can support growth and development of myxomycetes. Myxomycetes, also called slime molds, play a role in maintaining the soil microbiome, and can influence the microbial communities in these residential gardens. In this study, 204 ground leaf litter samples of ornamental woody shrubs and herbaceous flowering
plants were collected from elevated gardens in eight low-to-high rise buildings for the preparation of moist chambers (MC). A total of 14 species of myxomycetes belonging to nine genera were recorded and identified in this study: Arcyria cinerea, Collaria arcyrionema, Diachea leucopodia, Diderma effusum, Diderma hemisphaericum, Didymium nigripes, Didymium sp., Didymium squamulosum, Ophiotheca chrysosperma, Perichaena cf. corticalis, Perichaena depressa, Physarum album, Physarum cinereum, and Stemonitis cf. pallida. Overall MC productivity ranged from 43 to 45%. In terms of species abundance, Arcyria cinerea and Perichaena depressa were among the most recorded myxomycetes. The study provided evidence of rooftop gardens as suitable habitats for myxomycetes.

KEYWORDS: Amoebozoa, cosmopolitan, leaf litter, ornamental plants, slime molds, species occurrence, urban areas

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by Mescel S. Acola, Victor B. Amoroso, Alma B. Mohagan , Jeremy Carlo B. Naredo, Aldrin L. Hongco, Noel E. Lagunday, and Orlando L. Eusebio

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 17, Issue 1,
DOI: 10.26757/pjsb202317005

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): January 16, 2024

Abstract

Baculofractum Zompro 1995 is a genus of stick insects in the family Lonchodidae, subfamily Lonchodinae represented by three species: B. insigne, B. shelfordi, and B. williemsei, distributed in Indonesia and Malaysia. This paper reports the discovery of a new species of Baculofractum from Mt. Malimumu, Pantaron Range, Bukidnon which also represents the first record of the genus in the Philippines. The new species can be distinguished by the absence of four tubercles at the back of the head’s median ridges and its distinctly elongated operculum exceeding the end of the abdomen.

KEYWORDS: Amoebozoa, cosmopolitan, leaf litter, ornamental plants, slime molds, species occurrence, urban areas

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by Kier Mitchel E. Pitogo, Forest Jarvis, Aljohn Jay L. Saavedra, Tristan Luap Senarillos, Camille B. Concepcion and Peter M. Simpson

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 17, Issue 1,
DOI: 10.26757/pjsb202317006

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): January 19, 2024

Abstract

Mount Melibengoy is a partially protected key biodiversity area in southern Mindanao, Philippines faced with many anthropogenic pressures. Pushing for the holistic and evidence-based protection of this mountain requires reports on empirical biodiversity data, which are currently limited for the area. To augment this information, we conducted opportunistic field surveys between September 2020 and August 2022 and collated related data to generate a list of avian fauna in Mt Melibengoy would serve as a baseline for informed management interventions and future research. We recorded 130 avian species from 49 families and 104 genera, of which 68 species are considered Philippine endemics and 19 species are only found in Mindanao, including the rarely observed Mindanao lorikeet (Saudareous johnstoniae). The presence of several avian species of scientific and conservation importance requires immediate attention from concerned stakeholders to address habitat modifications and disturbances occurring in portions within and outside the Protected Area. Albeit preliminary, our results provide the much-needed evidence to justify the immediate protection of the unprotected forests of Mt Melibengoy and strengthen its already existing management mechanisms.

KEYWORDS: birds, Lake Holon, Mindanao lorikeet, NIPAS, protected areas

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by Domingo A. Madulid, Inocencio E. Buot, Jr., and Esperanza Maribel G. Agoo

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 17, Issue 1,
DOI: 10.26757/pjsb202317007

Abstract (Short Communication)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): January 31, 2024

Abstract

The name Rafflesia lagascae Blanco has been subject to misinterpretation and incorrect taxonomic evaluation by many authors including Merrill (1918) who regarded it (and R. philippensis) as a synonym of R. manillana Teschem. (Madulid & Agoo 2015a). The name was resurrected by Pelser et al. (2013) as the earlier correct name of R. panchoana Madulid, Buot & Agoo, but this is questioned as supporting discussion of the case was not provided. This present paper reveals that R. lagascae Blanco is in fact a duplication of R. philippensis Blanco. As such, R. lagascae is a superfluous and illegitimate name and should be rejected following the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants. The correct name of the Rafflesia in Mt. Makiling and other parts of Luzon is R. panchoana Madulid, Buot & Agoo.

KEYWORDS: Flora de Filipinas, nomenclatural analysis, Philippine Rafflesia, Rafflesia panchoana, Rafflesia philippensis

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by John King N. Layos, Cyrill John P. Godinez, and Masahide Nishibori

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 17, Issue 1,
DOI: 10.26757/pjsb202317008

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): March 07, 2024

Abstract

Due to the paucity of molecular studies, the origin of the unique Lanyu pigs has been described as “cryptic.” Recent evidence of the presence of Lanyu pigs with Type I signatures spanning from Northern Luzon (NL) through the western and central Philippine regions suggests the possibility of independent domestication of Lanyu pigs in the Philippines. To clarify the spatio-temporal dispersal of Lanyu pigs, this study meta-analyzed all D-loop sequences of Lanyu pigs with Type I
signatures (n=323) from Taiwan and the Philippines and elucidated the role of humans in their expansion. The result supported the existence of two subclades of Type I Lanyu pigs, the Taiwanese Lanyu and the Philippine Lanyu subclades. While the two subclades shared certain morphological traits, the latter had signs of morphological patterns that had undergone feralization. Long-distance movement of these pigs during the post-Neolithic era may have been facilitated by the known back-and forth migration between the islanders of Lanyu (Orchid Island) and the Batanes Archipelago, the northernmost region of the Philippines. Due to the absence of Lanyu pig signatures in Borneo and the fascinating presence of Lanyu signatures in Palawan, two possible scenarios are being proposed. First, the Lanyu pig originated in Taiwan and was introduced by humans (e.g., through trade after domestication into the Philippines) moving to the west of the Philippines where a new population later became established. Secondly, the ancestral origin of the Lanyu pig radiated from mainland Southeast Asia into the Philippines but was extirpated, leaving the subsequent population. The latter suggests the allopatric expansion of the unique Lanyu pigs, which could likely support that Sus scrofa is native to the Philippines. This finding provides new perspectives on the complex evolutionary and anthropogenic history of pig dispersal into Island Southeast Asia.

KEYWORDS: biogeography, dispersal, Lanyu pigs, mitochondrial DNA, phylogenetics

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by Marnelli S. Alviola, Cristian C. Lucañas, Aimee Lynn A. Barrion-Dupo, Orlando L. Eusebio, Camille Faith D. Duran, Ma. Francia Kyla M. Cammayo, Maria Niña Rica T. Cantalejo, Kirk J. Taray, Ireneo L. Lit, Jr.

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 17, Issue 1,
DOI: 10.26757/pjsb202317009

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): April 26, 2024

Abstract 

The class Diplura, also called two-pronged bristletails, remains understudied in the Philippines with only one recorded species each from Campodeidae, Japygidae, and Parajapygidae. This paper contributes to our knowledge of the group. Here, we describe the second Philippine species of Parajapygidae, Parajapyx rarosorum Alviola, Lucañas & Lit, sp. n., as new to science based on one adult male specimen and one juvenile specimen collected from guano samples at the twilight and dark zones of Minalokan Cave, Cavinti, Laguna Province. P. rarosorum, sp. n., differs from other Parajapyx species by having the following combination of characters: mandible with five teeth and two denticles; scutum of metanotum with 9+9 normal setae; abdomen IX and X with 14+14 and 11+11 microsetae, respectively; subcoxal organ with 8 accompanying setae, 16 glandular setae, and 6 sensorial setae. The occurrence of this new dipluran species among microscopic, guanophilous arthropods affirms and again underscores the importance of including subterranean ecosystems in biodiversity assessments. 

Keywords: Arthropoda, caves, Entognatha, Hexapoda, taxonomy

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by Annrhe H. Siscar, Dave Ryan C. Sombilon, Leigh Elizabeth I. Octaviano, Reuel M. Bennett, Thomas Edison E. dela Cruz

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 17, Issue 1,
DOI: 10.26757/pjsb202317010

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): May 25, 2024

Abstract 

Myxomycetes disperse spores over a long distance through wind. However, little is known about their vertical spore dispersal, particularly in an urban area where tall buildings can interfere with wind flow. In this study, the vertical spore dispersal of myxomycetes in an urban setting was studied by a spore baiting technique. Seven substrata placed in homemade spore baits were set up for 2-week and 4-week exposure in a high-rise residential building in Manila, the urban metropolis of the Philippines. The moist chamber culture technique was then used to evaluate the presence of myxomycetes at different elevations during the two sampling periods. Our results, though showed a low moist chamber productivity of 33% from the 210 moist chambers we prepared, recorded 14 species of myxomycetes identified as Arcyria cinerea, A. incarnata, Collaria arcyrionema, Comatricha alta, C. nigra, Diderma effusum, D. hemisphaericum, Didymium nigripes, D. squamulosum, Physarum cinereum, P. diderma, P. leucophaeum, Stemonitis axifera, and S. fusca, and two species identified only at the genus level – Didymium sp. and Physarum sp. Among these, Arcyria cinerea was recorded in all elevations,  indicating its easy dispersal along vertical elevations. Our study provided evidence of the presence of myxomycete spores at an elevation of 150 m above sea level in a highly populated urban environment.

Keywords: elevation, moist chamber culture technique, slime molds, spores, urban areas

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