Table of Contents

by Wilfred John E. Santiañez and Kazuhiro Kogame

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 16, Issue 1, DOI:10.26757/pjsb2022a16001

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): July 11, 2022

Abstract

Recent molecular-assisted taxonomic studies on the brown algal genus Hydroclathrus has resulted in discoveries of new taxa in the family Scytosiphonaceae, both at the genus and species level. However, phylogenetic studies on Hydroclathrus based on wide geographical sampling also suggested that the genus is not monophyletic. That is, one of the recently described species Hydroclathrus minutus is consistently segregated from the Hydroclathrus main clade. We propose here to segregate H. minutus from the brown algal genus Hydroclathrus and establish the new monotypic genus Manzaea (i.e., Manzaea minuta gen. & comb. nov.) based on information on molecular phylogenetics and morpho-anatomy. Morphologically, M. minuta is similar to Hydroclathrus and Tronoella in having clathrate (net-like) and spreading thalli but is differentiated from the latter two genera in having membranous thalli that are sometimes interadhesive resulting in portions of the thallus forming amorphous clumps. Additionally, Manzaea is distinguished from both clathrate genera in having thick-walled medullary cells and short closely arranged quadriseriate plurangia. Phylogenetic analyses (Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference) based on single (plastidial psaA and rbcL genes) and concatenated (cox3 + psaA + rbcL) genes showed that M. minuta is consistently segregated from the highly supported clade of Hydroclathrus species and often clustering with Tronoella and/or Rosenvingea. Our proposal further increases the diversity of monotypic genera in the Scytosiphonaceae and underscores the need to conduct further studies on tropical seaweed biodiversity.

KEYWORDS: brown seaweed, Hydroclathrus, Japan, phylogeny, taxonomy

Download PDF

 

by Jay Edneil C. Olivar, Kean Roe F. Mazo, Frank Hauenschild, and Alexandra N. Muellner-Riehl

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 16, Issue 1, DOI:10.26757/pjsb2022a16002

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): November 7, 2022

Abstract

A new variety of Cyrtandra villosissima from Zamboanga del Norte, Philippines, C. villosissima var. flavovirens, is here described. Both C. villosissima var. villosissima and C. villosissima var. flavovirens are erect suffrutescent plants, with large leaves that are slightly falcate, and have inflorescences with linear, densely hirsute bracts. Cyrtandra villosissima var. flavovirens can be distinguished from C. villosissima var. villosissima by its pale yellow to yellow-green corollas and its pedunculate inflorescences. A key to morphologically similar taxa, distribution maps, and photographs of the varieties are here provided.

KEYWORDS: biodiversity, systematics, taxonomy, variety

Download PDF

 

by Paulina Adanglao-Bawingan, Princes Luise C. Dela Tina, and Pradeep Kumar Divakar

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 16, Issue 1, DOI:10.26757/pjsb2022a16003

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): November 28, 2022

Abstract

This paper reports two Parmotrema species new to the Philippines, sampled from Mt. Candalaga, Maragusan, Davao De Oro during an initial survey of lichen diversity and distribution on the mountain. This resulted to a total of 32 Parmotrema species described from the Philippines to date. The finding confirmed the presence of more undiscovered lichen species in many places around the country, especially in Mindanao. In addition, an updated key for the identification of the known Philippine Parmotrema species is given.

KEYWORDS: lichen, mycology, Parmeliaceae, Parmotrema melanothrix, Parmotrema planatilobatum

Download PDF

 

by Wilfred John E. Santiañez, Christian Ace T. Guerta, and John Michael L. Lastimoso

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 16, Issue 1, DOI:10.26757/pjsb2022a16004

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): November 16, 2022

Abstract

Seaweeds research in the Philippines—from studies on their diversity, natural products chemistry, and the utilization of their derivatives—is largely based on spot collections of large and conspicuous components of the seaweed flora found along the coasts. Such efforts are often focused on commercially important seaweeds; thus, most of the smaller and even microscopic seaweeds remain understudied, if not completely overlooked. Consequently, little to none is known on many aspects of the biology, ecology, and even biochemistry of these components of the Philippine seaweed flora. To understand aspects of seaweed biology and serve as a facility for preserving the genetic resources of Philippine seaweeds, we established the Marine Macroalgal Reference Culture Collection at the University of the Philippines Marine Science Institute (UPMMARCC). We are currently maintaining 446 seaweed strains (or isolates) collected from several coastal and offshore areas in the Philippines, the latter including the Kalayaan Island Group in the West Philippine Sea, and 25 isolates from Okinawa, Japan. To our knowledge, the UP-MMARCC is the most diverse and widely sampled culture collection in the Philippines so far. Moreover, our preliminary molecular-assisted biodiversity studies suggest that UP-MMARCC houses several isolates that are either new records to the Philippines or putative new taxa. We anticipate that with continued support, we will be able to sustain and expand our culture collection, not only to facilitate discoveries but also to cater to the needs of the Philippine seaweed industry and in support of its call for diversifying our seaweed commodities and their products.

KEYWORDS: germling emergence method, marine biodiversity, seaweed culture, Pacific Ocean, tropical seaweeds, rbcL

Download PDF

 

by Marnelli S. Alviola, Cristian C. Lucañas, and Ireneo L. Lit, Jr.

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 16, Issue 1, DOI:10.26757/pjsb2022a16006

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): April 24, 2023

Abstract

Parajapyx giecuevasae, n. sp., the first Philippine member of the Parajapygidae and the second reported Diplura from the Philippines, is described from Mt. Makiling, Laguna. It is distinct from other Parajapyx species by having the following combination of characters: mandible with five teeth and three denticles; prescutum of metanotum with 2+1 setae; tergite X with 12+1+12 macrosetae and 10+1+10 normal setae; and subcoxal organ with 4 accompanying setae, 9 glandular setae and 5 sensorial setae.

KEYWORDS: Arthropoda, Entognatha, Hexapoda, Parajapyx, taxonomy

Download PDF

 

by John Edward P. Sacay and Nonillon M. Aspe

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 16, Issue 1, DOI:10.26757/pjsb2022a16007

Abstract (Short Communication)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): June 21, 2023

Abstract

Earthworm diversity and populations in the seaward and landward portions of Initao-Libertad Protected Landscape and Seascape (ILPLS) were assessed. Soil physico-chemical properties in the area were also assessed to explain such occurrences. Pheretima cf. lantapanensis, Amynthas sp., and Polypheretima sp., all belonging to the family Megascolecidae, were detected in the area. ILPLS has a very low diversity of earthworms and the soil physico-chemical properties had no significant relationship with earthworm species diversity. The soil physicochemical properties between the seaward and landward portions of the protected area were not significantly different. This study was undertaken to provide baseline information on earthworm species diversity in ILPLS, which will serve to help strengthen the policy on the conservation and protection of biodiversity in the protected area.

KEYWORDS: Amynthas, Annelida, Megascolecidae, Pheretima, Polypheretima

Download PDF

 

by Romeo R. Patano Jr., Victor B. Amoroso, Fulgent P. Coritico1, Clint Michael B. Cleofe, and Anita Rukmane-Bārbale

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 16, Issue 1, DOI:10.26757/pjsb2022a16008

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): July 14, 2023

Abstract

A new Philippine weevil species of the genus Pachyrhynchus Germar, 1824 is described and illustrated from Mount Candalaga, Davao de Oro as P. cebrem sp. nov. Its habitat, ecology, and threats are also discussed.

KEYWORDS: Coleoptera, curculionid, genitalia, Mount Candalaga, new species

Download PDF

 

by Ireneo L. Lit, Jr. , Cristian C. Lucañas , and Merdelyn T. Caasi-Lit

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 16, Issue 1, DOI:10.26757/pjsb2022a16009

Abstract (Short Communication)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): August 2, 2023

Abstract

The occurrence of the scale insect family Conchaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) in the Philippines is reported for the first time, based on a collection of false armored scale insects from Hoya landgrantensis Kloppenburg et al. (Apocynaceae), and a few other wax plants that are endemic to the Philippines. The minute scale insects belong to the genus Conchaspis Cockerell, and are identified as Conchaspis angraeci Cockerell, the only widespread species in this family. The occurrence of C. angraeci on H. cagayanensis, H. landgrantensis, and H. pimenteliana also constitute new host records, and the potential of this insect to become a pest of domesticated ornamental Hoya is also noted, should their population reach levels injurious to plants.

KEYWORDS: Coccoidea, entomology, false armored scale, Hoya, Sternorrhyncha

Download PDF

 

by Estephen B. Fortela and Juan Carlos T. Gonzalez

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 16, Issue 1, DOI:10.26757/pjsb2022a16010

Abstract (Short Communication)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): June 21, 2023

Abstract

The monotypic Scale-feathered Malkoha Lepidogrammus cumingi (Fraser 1839) and polytypic Red-crested Malkoha Dasylophus superciliosus (Dumont 1823) are two of the endemic cuckoos in the Philippines. The taxonomy and distribution of these endemic cuckoos are poorly known. Recent distribution data of these cuckoos showed broader distribution patterns in the islands of Luzon, Catanduanes, and Marinduque; however, morphometric variations among these island populations are still unknown. While both species are sexually monomorphic, the differences between sexes were mainly based on plumage coloration. Dasylophus superciliosus is composed of two subspecies: ssp. superciliosus (Southern Luzon) and ssp. cagayanensis (Northern Luzon). The separation of the two subspecies of D. superciliosus was determined by the differences in superciliary feather, the coloration of breast plumage, and the tail band. In this study, we investigated the morphometric variations (1) between subspecies of D. superciliosus, (2) among island populations, and (3) between sexes (sexual dimorphism) of the two malkoha species. Four linear measurements (bill length, wing length, tarsus length, and tail length) were measured from 184 museum specimens. Results showed that the Catanduanes group (n=10) of L. cumingi exhibited a smaller body size than the Marinduque group (n=9). Red-crested Malkoha D. superciliosus showed significant differences between its two subspecies where the ssp. cagayanensis (n=28) exhibited smaller body size (bill length, wing length, and tail length) compared to ssp. superciliosus (n=81). Lastly, this study confirms that the two malkoha species are sexually monomorphic based on the analyzed morphometric data.

KEYWORDS: endemics, island population, linear measurements, ornithology, Philippine malkohas

Download PDF

 

by Tristan Luap P. Senarillos, Noe P. Mendez, Guiller Opiso and Jayson C. Ibañez

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 16, Issue 1, DOI:10.26757/pjsb2022a16011

Abstract (Short Communication)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): June 21, 2023

Abstract

Recent biodiversity inventory efforts in the Anonang-Lobi mountain range in Leyte resulted in an additional distribution record for Utricularia striatula Sm. (Lentibulariaceae) in the Philippines. An updated distributional map of this species and notes on its habitat and ecology in the Philippines are provided in this paper.

KEYWORDS: bladderworts, Burauen, carnivorous plant, lithophytic, phytogeography

Download PDF

 

by Miguel Enrique Ma. Azcuna, Jonel A. Corral , Enriquo Velasquez and Jayvee Ablaña Saco

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 16, Issue 1, DOI:10.26757/pjsb2022a16012

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): July 14, 2023

Abstract

The Verde Island Passage (VIP) is a region in the Philippines with very high marine biodiversity. Baseline coral assessments were conducted in selected sites in the four provinces of the VIP (Batangas, Marinduque, Occidental Mindoro, and Oriental Mindoro) to compare coral abundance and biodiversity in Marine Protected Area (MPA) and non-MPA sites that were subjected to anthropogenic stressors. A total of eight sites were surveyed to measure average hard coral cover (HCC) relative to other benthic components. Generic richness and the dominant coral genera were also obtained for the eight sites. The average HCC and generic richness of Batangas MPA and Batangas non-MPA were (39.82 ± 7.59%, 22 coral TAUs) and (38.80 ± 5.56%, 27 coral TAUs), respectively. The average HCC and generic richness of Marinduque MPA and Marinduque non-MPA were (25.58 ± 2.37%, 13 coral TAUs) and (35.73 ± 4.05%, 17 coral TAUs), respectively. The average HCC and generic richness of Occidental Mindoro MPA and Occidental Mindoro non-MPA were (49.49 ± 4.50%, 26 coral TAUs) and (32.32 ± 5.60%, 19 coral TAUs), respectively. The average HCC and generic richness of Oriental Mindoro MPA and Oriental Mindoro non-MPA were (25.02 ± 4.72%, 24 coral TAUs) and (5.93 ± 2.10%, 10 coral TAUs), respectively. Batangas non-MPA
and Marinduque non-MPA showed potential to become MPAs due to their higher HCC and generic richness which were attributed to natural disturbances and duration of local reef management in their MPA counterparts. Continued monitoring and assessment should be done to build on the growing database of biodiversity data that is being compiled for the VIP.

KEYWORDS: benthic diversitty, biodiversity, coral reef, macroalgae, Marine Protected Areas (MPA)

Download PDF

 

by Earl Kevin F. Fatallo and Vivian A. Panes

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 16, Issue 1, DOI:10.26757/pjsb2022a16013

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): November 9,2023

Abstract

Dillenia philippinensis Rolfe and D. luzoniensis (S. Vidal) Merr. are Philippine endemic plants for which there are limited publicly available DNA sequences. However, DNA barcoding will help provide a better understanding of species relationships, especially for the identification and authentication of these species that need conservation due to their near-threatened status in the wild. This study was carried out to identify D. philippinensis and D. luzoniensis collected from various barangays in the municipality of Pola, Oriental Mindoro and the Ateneo de Manila University campus. After DNA extraction, ITS, rbcL, and matK markers were amplified and sequenced. BLASTn revealed a sequence identity of 97.38% to 100.00% for D. philippinensis reference sequences in the GenBank library, with query coverage ranging from 71% to 100% across all the DNA markers used in the study. Meanwhile, BLASTn for D. luzoniensis showed multiple species hits to different species in GenBank, specifically D. excelsa, D. tetrapetala, and D. philippinensis. This is due to the fact that there are no available deposited barcode sequences for D. luzoniensis on GenBank. This study suggests that matK and ITS are more efficient than rbcL in discriminating sequence divergence in closely related taxa. Nevertheless, rbcL results showed that D. philippinensis and D. luzoniensis are closely related taxa due to their low sequence divergence. DNA barcoding was used to successfully identify D. philippinensis and D. luzoniensis gathered from the aforementioned sampling sites. The molecular data from
barcode analysis will serve as a means of identification for plants that have a limited number of sources from the wild.

KEYWORDS: chloroplast DNA, conservation genetics, internal transcribed spacer, mitochondrial DNA, phylogenetic tree

Download PDF

 

by Ma. Ramela Angela C. Bermeo, Rommel J. Gestuveo, Jane S. Geduspan, and Philip Ian P. Padilla

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 16, Issue 1, DOI:10.26757/pjsb2022a16014

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): Octobber 30, 2023

Abstract

In the Philippines, the economically important slipper-shaped oyster Magallana bilineata (formerly Crassostrea iredalei) is valued for its tasty and creamy meat. Production of this shellfish in the country relies heavily on rearing natural spats through traditional techniques with a focus on economically important traits. The need to advance culture technologies requires the use of genomic tools like microsatellites to preliminarily assess the genetic structuring of oyster populations. Microsatellites are widely used low-cost molecular markers that can describe genetic variability among populations. Five identified microsatellite loci (CI.H09, CI.A08, CI.H10, CI.D01, and CI.B07) for C. iredalei were utilized to examine 8 oyster populations from Regions VI and VIII, central Philippines. Meat condition indices (CI) from morphometric and gravimetric data were used to correlate with the genetic information. Results from microsatellite analyses showed that all loci departed from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) due to heterozygote excess with expected (He) and observed (Ho) heterozygosity ranging from 0.2096- 0.7065 and 0.2333 0.9286, respectively. Negative inbreeding coefficients (FIS) in several loci were observed in 7 populations with high Ho implying increased heterozygosity that is more likely to outbreed. There was little genetic divergence among all populations with a global FST=0.0086. These findings revealed a positive correlation between CI and Ho in each population, while a negative correlation was shown with its observed homozygosity. This study highlighted the potential application of microsatellite analysis for characterizing oyster populations from the central Philippines and identifying markers that can be used to improve culture technologies, management practices, and production.

KEYWORDS: aquaculture, condition index, Hardy-Weinberg, population genetics

Download PDF