Table of Contents

by Reizl P. Jose, Nonillon M. Aspe, Wilbert A. Aureo, Rochelyn Y. Parba, Carlo D. Capunhag, and Charina I. Narido

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 15, 2021, DOI: 10.26757/pjsb2021a15001

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): April 12, 2022

Abstract

An earthworm survey was conducted to determine the species composition, diversity, and species richness in the grassland, agricultural areas, and secondary forest habitats of Rajah Sikatuna Protected Landscape (RSPL). Six indigenous morphospecies of earthworms were identified, which are putatively new species. These include one Amynthas species, three Polypheretima species, and two Pheretima species. Also, Pontoscolex corethrurus, an invasive species was found to be the most abundant species of earthworm in grassland and agricultural areas but not in the secondary forest. The diversity index showed a high level in the secondary forest with low species richness. Agricultural and grassland areas showed a low level of diversity. Land use and abiotic factors can be related to the composition of earthworm communities in different habitats. Further studies must be conducted for the conservation and sustainable management of its biodiversity and habitat.

KEYWORDS: dinoflagellate, harmful algae, morphology, phylogeny, toxinology

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by Reagan Joseph T. Villanueva and Jonah Van Beijnen

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 15, 2021, DOI: 10.26757/pjsb2021a15002

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): May 16, 2022

Abstract

The Cleopatra’s Needle Mountain Range (CNMR) in northern Palawan includes one of the largest remaining patches of primary forest in the Philippines and has a high conservation value. To provide scientific baseline information to recognize the CNMR as a protected area, biologists mapped its biodiversity during fieldwork conducted from October to December 2014. The present study proposes a new species of Odonata discovered during the survey. Onychothemis yvonneae spec. nov. is described, illustrated, and compared with its nearest allies. The new species is the second member of the genus Onychothemis in the Philippines and is the seventh known overall. Onychothemis yvonneae appears to be most closely related to O. testacea and O. tonkinensis.

KEYWORDS: Anisoptera, biodiversity, Cleopatra’s Needle, entomology, new species

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by Jade Aster T. Badon, Jacqueline Y. Miller, Charles V. Covell, and Thomas C. Emmel

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 15, 2021, DOI: 10.26757/pjsb2021a15003

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): April 12, 2022

Abstract

The Philippines experiences an average of 20 typhoons annually and how they affect the unique biodiversity is still unknown. The data sampling of butterflies between typhoon and non-typhoon seasons in various habitats showed that typhoons may play an important role in butterfly diversity and community changes. The result also showed that land-use change still has a greater negative impact on butterfly diversity than typhoons. This study will pave way for more research on how typhoons affect the diversity, ecology, and population dynamics of various taxa in the Philippines.

KEYWORDS: Community disturbance, Lepidoptera, Natural calamities, Rhopalocera

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by Etsuro Sawai

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 15, 2021, DOI: 10.26757/pjsb2021a15004

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): May 4, 2022

Abstract

Detailed biological information (e.g. distribution, size, sex) on ocean sunfishes/molids (Molidae) in Philippine waters is lacking. Four species of ocean sunfishes from Philippine waters are known to date: Mola mola (Linnaeus, 1758), Mola alexandrini (Ranzani, 1839), Masturus lanceolatus (Liénard, 1840), and Ranzania laevis (Pennant, 1776). However, in recent years, the taxonomy of Molidae (especially the genus Mola) has progressed at the global level, and it becomes necessary to review species that occur in Philippine waters. In this study, photographs of Molidae from Philippine waters were collected and morphological research involving museum specimens was conducted. The results of species re-identification based on the photographs of 12 specimens of Molidae obtained in this study were as follows: a specimen of M. alexandrini, five specimens of M. mola, and six specimens of Ma. lanceolatus. Although a specimen identified as M. alexandrini in a previous study was here re-identified as M. mola, the occurrence of M. alexandrini in Philippine waters was nevertheless confirmed in this study on the basis of another specimen. Mola alexandrini and Ma. lanceolatus were confused with M. mola locally, suggesting the importance of preserving real specimens, photographs and genetic samples.

KEYWORDS: Ichthyology, Molids, Morphology, New Record, Taxonomy

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by Edwin R. Tadiosa, Raul T. Angeles, Jr., and Gregorio V. Angeles, Jr.

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 15, 2021, DOI: 10.26757/pjsb2021a15005

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): May 3, 2022

Abstract

A large forested section of northeastern Catanduanes comprised the Catanduanes Watershed Forest Reserve (CWFR) was surveyed for its macroscopic fungal diversity during the rainy season (September-December 2017). Transect line (TL) and quadrat methods were used, after which samples were collected, recorded, and photographed. A total of 66 morphospecies of fungi belonging to 42 genera and 28 families from among 1,331 individuals collected were identified. With 58 belonging to the Basidiomycota and eight to the Ascomycota. All species represent new island records for Catanduanes. Based on Simpson’s Diversity Index, the study area is deemed to host a low level of fungal diversity.

KEYWORDS: Ascomycopta, Basidiomycota, macrofungi, mycology, watershed

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by John Paul S. Domingo, Christian E. Supsup, and Esperanza Maribel G. Agoo

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 15, 2021, DOI: 10.26757/pjsb2021a15006

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): May 3, 2022

Abstract

Scorodocarpus borneensis (Baill.) Becc., a tree that exudes garlic or onion smell, was discovered growing in a secondary lowland forest of Balabac Island in the Palawan Biogeographic Region. The tropical tree species also occurs in Borneo, the Malay Peninsula, and Sumatra. Our finding represents the first record of this monotypic genus from the Philippines. Here we provide information on the taxonomy, morphology, vernacular name, ecology, geographical distribution, conservation status, and local utilization of S. borneensis.

KEYWORDS: indalawan, kulim, mansado, Olacaceae, wood garlic tree

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by Nicko Amor Flores, Jade Tifany Rey, Jeffrey T. Williams, Kent Carpenter, and Mudjekeewis Santos

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 15, 2021, DOI: 10.26757/pjsb2021a15007

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): May 3, 2022

Abstract

The Philippines has been regarded as the center of the center of marine shorefish biodiversity, having the highest number of fish species per square area in the world. The blacknape large-eye bream, Gymnocranius satoi, has been reported to occur from Southern Japan, Taiwan to Northwestern Australia and to the Coral Sea, but has not previously been recorded from the Philippines. From 2011 – 2019, the National Fisheries Research and Development Institute (NFRDI) collaborated with the National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution (NMNH/SI), USA, and the Old Dominion University (ODU), Virgina, USA, to inventory all commercial fish species sold in fish markets around the Philippines. During three (3) fish market surveys (Dumaguete City Market, Negros Oriental; Claveria Public Market, Cagayan, Northern Luzon; and Tabaco City Market, Albay, Southeastern Luzon in 2013, 2016 and 2017, respectively), we collected and eventually identified using morphological and DNA barcoding (COI) analysis, seven (7) specimens of G. satoi, representing the first records of this species from the country. Since the potential to discover new species and first records of fish species in the Philippines is high, further taxonomic study of the genus Gymnocranius is needed.

KEYWORDS: Marine biodiversity, conservation, fisheries, DNA barcoding, taxonomy

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by Harvey S. Salaga, Arnold Rabor Jr, Agnes A. Talavera, David Leviston, Cristy Burlace, Ian Dela Cruz, and Jade Aster T. Badon

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 15, 2021, DOI: 10.26757/pjsb2021a15008

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): May 16, 2022

Abstract

Nature interest groups such as the Philippine Lepidoptera Butterflies and Moths, Inc. (PhiLep) aim to monitor and document butterflies and moths in various landscapes across the country using citizen science. This report compiled new island records for the four species of the genus Chilades known in the Philippines, namely Chilades putli gnoma with new records from General Santos City (Mindanao) and Bohol Island, Chilades lajus athena from Zamboanguita, Negros Oriental and Banton Island, Romblon (Visayas) and the Batanes Islands, Chilades mindora from Bohol Island, and Chilades pandava vapanda with new records from Barobo, Surigao del Sur (Mindanao), and Bago, Negros Occidental.

KEYWORDS: biodiversity, citizen science, Chilades, new record, PhiLep

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by Garry Benico and Rhodora Azanza

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 15, 2021, DOI: 10.26757/pjsb2021a15009

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): April 1, 2022

Abstract

Alexandrium tamutum M.Montressor, A.Beran & U.John is a non-toxic, bloom-forming dinoflagellate species commonly reported in temperate waters. In this study, 8 cultures of A. tamutum established from Bolinao Channel and Manila Bay, Philippines were characterized in terms of their morphology, phylogeny and toxicity. Cells were roundish, measuring 25.5–29.84 μm long and 26.2–28.45 μm wide. The nucleus is equatorially elongated and located at the center of the cell. The chloroplasts are numerous, golden brown in color and radially arranged. Thecal tabulation is typical of Alexandrium: APC, 4′, 6”, 6c, 6s, 5”’, 2””. Shape of the taxonomically informative thecal plates such as sixth precingular plate (6”) and posterior sulcal plate (sp) was similar to A. tamutum, which confirms the species identity. However, the presence of anterior and posterior attachment pores observed in our cultured isolates is the first case in this species. Molecular phylogeny inferred from LSU rDNA and ITS supports our identification by forming a well-supported clade composed of A. tamutum strains from other geographic regions. HPLC analysis showed that A. tamutum is generally non-toxic except for strain ATC9 which has low amount of decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX), resulting to a toxicity of 0.07 fmole STX eq per cell. The present study reports the first verified occurrence of Philippine A. tamutum with reliable morphological and molecular information, including the first record in Manila Bay and first detection of PST in one strain at a certain culture period.

KEYWORDS: dinoflagellate, harmful algae, morphology, phylogeny, toxinology

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by David Emmanuel M. General and Perry Archival C. Buenavente

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 15, 2021, DOI: 10.26757/pjsb2021a15010

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): December 22, 2021

Abstract

The occurrence of mermithism in ants is reported for the first time in the Philippines. The mermithergate worker and previously undescribed dealate queen of Pheidole sauberi are described. The mermithergate worker is intermediate in size between the major and minor workers and pale yellow in color, in contrast to the brown healthy workers, and has a much larger gaster than either uninfected subcaste. Colony demographics and nest ecology are also reported. This find offers an opportunity for interdisciplinary research on ant parasitism.

KEYWORDS: transect survey, Mindanao, mermithism, entire nest series

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by Ariana Gabrielle B. Melgar, Robert S. Guino-o II, and Persie Mark Q. Sienes

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 15, 2021, DOI: 10.26757/pjsb2021a15011

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): May 17, 2022

Abstract

The study used morphological and genetic approach for the DNA barcoding analysis of the inter- and intra-species relationships among catadromous Philippine freshwater eels. Past DNA barcoding studies on Philippine anguillid eels came from Northern Luzon. This study aimed to determine the DNA barcodes of the freshwater eels of the Philippines using the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) gene of the mitochondrial DNA. Specimens were collected from six sites in the Philippines. Four Anguilla species – Anguilla bicolor pacifica Schmidt, 1928, A. celebesensis Kaup, 1856, A. interioris Whitney, 1938 and A. marmorata Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 and one Monopterus species– Monopterus javanensis Lacepéde, 1800 were collected and identified. Morphological features varied from the taxonomic guides for Anguilla celebesensis and A. interioris with their body color and fin length. Genetic divergence estimates using Kimura 2-parameter substitution model showed an intraspecific variation of 0–0.4% and interspecific variation of 4.1– 27.6%. The ML tree generated was similar to the previous studies and indicated the monophyly of the Indo–Pacific freshwater anguillid eel lineage. This study also reports the first genetic record of M. javanensis sampled from Batac, Ilocos Norte, Philippines.

KEYWORDS: Anguilla, catadromous, ichthyology, Monopterus, systematics

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by Marc Ryan Sabordo, Carl Michael Buyco, Gwendalyn Henares, Jessica Pacalioga, and Hendrik Freitag

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 15, 2021, DOI: 10.26757/pjsb2021a15012

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version): May 16, 2022

Abstract

The water beetle fauna of northern Negros Island has not been comprehensively studied. In this study, aquatic Coleoptera of northern Negros have been compiled from various collections. Specimens were sampled through manual sampling and light trap. Twenty-six (26) species were recorded including 21 which are Philippine endemics. Nine genera and three known species are recorded for the first time from Negros.. Notes on distribution, ecology and identification are provided. Possible new species, future potential discoveries as well as current significance in terms of conservation are discussed.

KEYWORDS: Biodiversity survey, New record, Taxonomy, Visayas, Water beetles

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