Table of Contents

by William J. Davis, Gustavo Henrique Jerônimo, D. Rabern Simmons, C. Alisha Quandt, and Timothy Y. James

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 13, Issue 2, 2019, Pages 1-14, DOI: 10.26757/pjsb2019b13001

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version) : March 17, 2020

Abstract

Fredrick K. Sparrow and his students, including Irineo J. Dogma, conducted many surveys of the aquatic phycomycete biota of the Douglas Lake region in Michigan, United States of America. Following the tradition of Sparrow and Dogma, we undertook an inventory of the aquatic phycomycete biota of the Douglas Lake region with an emphasis on Chytridiomycota. Cognizant of the difficulties of relying solely on light microscopy, we used a combination of light microscopy, culturing, and single cell techniques. We observed a total of 42 taxa. We successfully cultured Terramycetaceae sp., Physocladia obscura, and Rhizoclosmatium globosum. Using single cell techniques, we obtained molecular sequence data for Rhopalophlyctis sarcoptoides, Rhizophydium echinocystoides and an unidentified parasite of Desmidium. Our inferred maximum likelihood phylogeny placed Rhopalophlyctis sarcoptoides in the Chytridales as sister to Chytriomyces hyalinus. Rhizophydium echinocystoides was placed in the Rhizophydiales but did not group with the type of the genus. The unidentified parasite of Desmidium surprisingly grouped with members of Synchytrium. Our results provide a pilot study for demonstrating how light microscopy, culturing, and single cell techniques to obtain molecular sequences of chytrid taxa could be used to create a local aquatic fungal inventory based on molecular techniques, discover novel taxa, and potentially revise current taxonomy.

KEYWORDS: Chytridiomycota, single cell, Smith’s Fen, Bryant’s Bog

Download PDF

by Delia De Castro-Ontengco and Teresita Capal
Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 13, Issue 2, 2019, Pages 15-18, DOI: 10.26757/pjsb2019b13002
Abstract (Primary Research Paper)
Date Posted (Final Published Version) : March 11, 2020

Abstract

Superficial mycotic infections are treatable conditions and they rank as the third most common illness globally, next to headaches and tooth decays. Piper betel L. is an aromatic plant with heart-shaped leaves that play a role in traditional medicine. This study harnessed the antidermatophytic potential of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Piper betel, PBLO, Philippine variety. Using serial twofold dilutions of PBLO, including selected PBLO constituents, to challenge Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and clinical isolates of filamentous dermatophytes, results indicate that the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, MIC, of the essential oil extract was 625 ug/ml for C. albicans and MICs of <156 ug/ml for Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton tonsurans. Data on known PBLO constituents suggest that eugenol plays a major role in PBLO’s antidermatophytic activity, followed by chavicol. Chavicol and eugenol exhibited the same MIC, 625 ug/ml, against C. albicans ATCC 10231. A eugenol MIC of <156 ug/ml was observed against M. canis, T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and T. tonsurans; and 312.5 ug/ml against M. gypseum. Chavicol MICs of 312.5 ug/ml and 625 ug/ml were observed against Trichophyton spp. and Microsporum spp., respectively. Results of the study suggest the potential of P. betel essential oil as an alternative to conventional antifungals for the treatment of dermatophytosis. With the presence of many active constituents in PBLO essential oil, antifungal resistance is unlikely to happen, as multiple mutations will be required to overcome the mechanism/s of action of each of these constituents.

KEYWORDS: Candida albicans, Microsporum spp, Trichophyton spp, eugenol, chavicol, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, P. betel’s antifungal activity

Download PDF

Distribution of 18s rDNA variants of Diderma hemisphaericum (Myxomycota) specimens obtained from moist chambers of materials collected in the Philippines and Vietnam

by King Joshua Almadrones-Reyes, John Lorenzo M. Bernardo, John Carlo Redeña-Santos, and Nikki Heherson A. Dagamac

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 13, Issue 2, 2019, Pages 19-28, DOI: 10.26757/pjsb2019b13003

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version) : March 11, 2020

Abstract

Since there are only limited biogeographic studies of myxomycetes in Southeast Asia, this study was conducted to assess the molecular diversity of Diderma hemisphaericum, a cosmopolitan myxomycetes species that abundantly occurs in most moist chamber collections in tropical Southeast Asia. Specimens that contain D. hemisphaericum were gathered from various parts of the Philippines: (i) Los Banos, (ii) Calauan, (iii) Basud, (iv) Isarog and (v) Malilipot; and Vietnam: (i) Thai Nguyen (ii) Ha Noi and (iii) Da Nang. Using modern molecular techniques, the common barcode nuclear marker 18S rDNA for myxomycetes was targeted for the 50 specimen used in this study. A total of 27 ribotypes (11 from the Philippines and 16 from Vietnam) were obtained. The Mantel test showed that genetic differentiation among ribotypes is not correlated with geographic distances. The FST index (0.083) indicates high genetic intermixing between the Philippines and Vietnam. Hence, it seems that the variation across regional scale gene pool is not directly influenced by geographic isolation but rather by environmental selection.

Download PDF

by Axel H. Arriola, Ma. Catherine M. Noche, Emmanuel A. Tangco, Abigail A. Vicente, Mariel B. Santos and Grecebio Jonathan D. Alejandro

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 13, Issue 2, 2019, Pages 29-34, DOI: 10.26757/pjsb2019b13004

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version) : March 12, 2020

Abstract

A molecular phylogenetic study was conducted to determine the position of the Philippine endemic Miliusa vidalii in the tribe Miliuseae of family Annonaceae utilizing the combined cpDNA sequence data (trnL-F-matK-ndhF-psbA-trnH-ycf1). Bayesian inference and Maximum parsimony analyses revealed a robustly supported monophyletic Miliusa clade (PP=1.00; BS=93%). Miliusa vidalii nested within clade D (PP=1.00; BS=85%) shares similar features by having terminal inflorescences and a notably long pedicel. M. vidalii is resolved as sister to M. lanceolata, which shares morphological features such as length of pedicels, number of secondary veins, shape of leaf apex, and apiculate monocarp. This present study revealed that M. vidalii possesses a conspicuous glandular structure in the inner petals, a feature that is common only to species found in clade A. Therefore, increased taxon sampling is necessary to construct a stronger phylogenetic relationship within the genus.

Download PDF

by Michaela Marie C. Dizon, Ian Carlo P. Garcia, Ma. Kersten A. Calimag and Josefino R. Castillo

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 13, Issue 2, 2019, Pages 35-39, DOI: 10.26757/pjsb2019b13005

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version) : March 25, 2020

Abstract

Recent interest in the use of leeches as a source of eDNA by obtaining and analyzing traces of its last blood meal has proven noteworthy as a tool in screening biodiversity. As the method is fairly new and has relatively unexplored benefits, its assessment as a tool in such fields as ecology and biotechnology prompts further studies. This study was conducted to provide an alternative to collecting samples in poorly-explored areas or in areas where collection is very difficult, if not impossible. Using leeches collected from Angadanan, Isabela, DNA was extracted and cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene was amplified using conventional PCR. Gene sequences from resulting amplicons were matched with similar sequences using BLASTn, where prey sequences were narrowed down to organisms with the highest match of no less than 85%. Highest score of similarities were obtained and species identified included Cyprinus carpio L. 1758, Homo sapiens L., 1758, Bos taurus L., 1758, Bubalus bubalis carabanensis L.S. Castillo, 1998, Equus caballus L., 1758, and Canis familiaris L., 1758. These results demonstrate that using leech-extracted blood meal may be a successful tool in screening vertebrate biodiversity.

Download PDF

by Weenalei T. Fajardo and Paulina A. Bawingan

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 13, Issue 2, 2019, Pages 40-54, DOI: 10.26757/pjsb2019b13006

Abstract (Primary Research Paper)

Date Posted (Final Published Version) : March 25, 2020

Abstract

There are limited studies on the diversity of Philippine lichenized fungi. This study collected and determined corticolous Graphidaceae from 38 collection sites in 10 municipalities of western Pangasinan province. The study found 35 Graphidaceae species belonging to 11 genera. Graphis is the dominant genus with 19 species. Other species belong to the genera Allographa (3 species) Fissurina (3), Phaeographis (3), while Austrotrema, Chapsa, Diorygma, Dyplolabia, Glyphis, Ocellularia, and Thelotrema had one species each. This taxonomic survey added 14 new records of Graphidaceae to the flora of western Pangasinan.

Download PDF

by Prince Nur-Hakeem N. Buisan , Zohaina M. Pasandalan , Almera D. Pandulo, Nof  A. Balabagan , Tasmera O. Farid , Tarhata A. Abubakar , Athea Mohidda M. Pantog , Datutie A. Labas, and Nikki Heherson A. Dagamac

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, Volume 13, Issue 2, 2019, Pages 55-57, DOI: 10.26757/pjsb2019b13007

Abstract (Short Communication)

Date Posted (Final Published Version) : March 18, 2020

Abstract

Banana leaf litter as a microhabitat for cosmopolitan myxomycetes has never been studied in the Philippines. Since Southern Mindanao hosts a number of local banana plantations, ground leaf litters and pseudostems were randomly collected to set up moist chamber cultures that eventually yielded plasmodial or fruiting body records. Fructifications were observed from moist chambers containing the litters from the pseudostem. Five species are reported for this study namely, Arcyria cinerea, Didymium nigripes, Didymium squamulosum, Perichaena depressa, and Perichaena vermicularis. This record calls for comprehensive investigation of agricultural plantations in the country for possible substrate association of myxomycetes.

Download PDF