Volume 10 (2016)

Table of Contents

Rafflesia camarinensis (Rafflesiaceae), A New Species from Mt. Asog, Camarines Sur, Luzon Island, Philippines

Research Paper (Taxonomy and Systematics)

by Flordeliz B. Valenzuela, Gertrudes Girlie Jaucian-Adan, Esperanza Maribel G. Agoo and Domingo A. Madulid

Abstract

Rafflesia camarinensis, a new species of Rafflesia, is described from Mt. Asog, Camarines Sur in southeastern Luzon, Philippines. The species is remarkable in being one of the smallest Rafflesia in the Philippines with flower diameter measuring just 11-13 cm across. It is distinguished from R. baletei from the adjoining Mt. Isarog by various characters more notably its smaller size, dome-shaped perigone lobes, thicker and almost woody texture, less dense warts which are more or less homogeneous and raised, fewer, shorter and randomly distributed processes, and a diaphragm concolorous with the perigone lobes and with continuous thick white warts on its surface. It has a very narrow distribution, is critically endangered and needs immediate conservation actions.

Keywords: Rafflesiaceae, Rafflesia camarinensis, Mt. Asog, Philippines

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A New Species of Mayfly (Ephemeroptera: Tricorythidae) from Mindanao Island, Philippines and Association of Life Stages Using DNA Barcode

Research Paper (Taxonomy and Systematics)

by Leocris S. Batucan Jr., Olga M. Nuñeza, Reagan Joseph T. Villanueva, Chung-Ping Lin

Abstract

A new mayfly species, Sparsorythus buntawensis sp. nov. (Tricorythidae) from Layawan River of Mt. Malindang in Mindanao Island, the Philippines is described based on nymphal and adult morphologies. Sparsorythus buntawensis sp. nov. differ from all known members of the genus primarily in the deeper cleft of the hypopharynx and wider distance between compound eyes. Conspecific specimens of various life stages and sexes of this new mayfly were associated using DNA barcode.

Keywords: Tricorythidae, Mayfly, DNA Barcoding

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Phenetic Analysis of Eighteen Species of Philippine Medinilla Gaudich. (Melastomataceae) Based on Morphological Characteristics and Phenolic Profile

Research Paper (Taxonomy and Systematics)

by Antonio L. Rayos, Jr., Evelyn B. Rodriguez, William S. Gruezo, Annalee S. Hadsall and Lourdes B. Cardenas

Abstract

The genus Medinilla Gaudich., having about eighty Philippine species, is widely distributed in the archipelago. This study used morphological and chemical data to explain taxonomic relationship among eighteen species belonging to the genus. For chemical data, two-dimensional paper chromatography was employed to survey different phenolic compounds present in each species considered in this study. A total of seventy-seven different phenolic compounds were found to be present among the eighteen species of Medinilla. A phenogram was constructed by PAST version 1.42 (with Ward’s method as algorithm) using only morphological characters, another using chemical characters obtained by paper chromatography, and another using both morphological and chemical characters. In the first phenogram, two distinct clusters were formed while in the second phenogram, three distinct clusters were formed with M. clementis and M. dolichophylla separating from the rest of the species studied. In third phenogram, three major clusters were observed. In all three phenograms generated, M. ternifolia and M. venosa consistently clustered closely together. The same case was observed with M. ramiflora and M. myrtiformis. The phenograms reflect taxonomic affinities among the species used in this study. For further studies, inclusion of more species and molecular sequencing of samples are recommended.

Keywords: Medinilla, paper chromatography, phenetics, phenolic compounds, cluster analysis

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Anuran Diversity and Ecology from Forest Fragments in Cavite Province, Luzon Island, Philippines

Research Paper (Diversity and Ecology)

by Rubie M. Causaren, Arvin C. Diesmos and Neil Aldrin D. Mallari

Abstract

The earliest comprehensive work on Cavite Province’s anurans started in 1998 in Mount Palay-Palay/Mataas-na-Gulod Protected Landscape. Annual anuran assessments have been done in this protected area since then, but not for the entire province. The anuran assemblages are also experiencing numerous anthropogenic threats that could affect their diversity. The aim of the study was to determine anuran diversity, richness, and abundance in six secondary lowland forest fragments in Cavite and further contribute to existing knowledge on Philippine anurans. Anuran surveys were conducted from February to September 2010 by employing a combination of strip transect sampling, time-constrained searches, visual encounter survey (VES), and acoustic encounter survey (AES). Utilizing EstimateS v.8.2, species diversity was represented by Shannon’s Diversity Index (H’), species richness by the non-parametric Jackknife1 and sampling efficiency by MaoTau. Twenty-one (21) microhabitats were identified, and species diversity and richness were highest in riparian forests during both dry and wet seasons. A total of 17 anuran taxa, including five representing new records for Cavite, were recorded. Species diversity (H´) values slightly varied and a comparison of the MaoTau and the Jackknife1 results indicated that ca. 80-100% of the anuran species were detected from the different forest fragments. The anuran assemblage has a high degree of endemism (70.6%) with two yet-to-be described species, Platymantis sp. and Kaloula sp., also known to occur in Cavite.

Keywords: AES, amphibians, habitats, Jackknife, MaoTau, microhabitats, VES

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Species Diversity, Abundance and Habitat Distribution of Anurans in Mts. Palay-Palay Mataas-Na-Gulod Protected Landscape, Luzon Island, Philippines

Research Paper (Diversity and Ecology)

by Rubie Maranan Causaren

Abstract

Mt. Palay-Palay is Cavite’s only protected landscape and yet very few herpetological studies have been done in this area. Thus, the study aims to provide robust ecological data on different anuran species so that an effective conservation and management plan could be formulated. Five habitats were sampled using a combination of cruising transect, stratified random strip transect sampling, time-constrained searches, visual encounter survey (VES) and acoustic encounter survey (AES). A total of 1528 individuals belonging to 12 species was recorded from the study area. In addition to previous works, 2 Platymantis spp. were new records bringing the total species richness to 16. Of the 16 species, 10 (62.5%) are endemic to the Philippines. Among the species, Platymantis mimulus was the most abundant and also had the highest density of 174 frogs ha-1. Among the habitats riparian forests had highest species diversity, Mau Tao and Jackknife1 values which showed dependence of anurans on water. Of the 17 microhabitats, forest floor litter was the most occupied by anurans.

Keywords: diversity, species richness, density, microhabitats, Mao Tau, Jackknife1, AES, VES

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Faunistic Survey of Freshwater Microcrustacean Zooplankton of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao Islands: New Locality Records and Updated Species Accounts

Short Communication (Taxonomy and Systematics)

by Erica Silk P. Dela Paz, Gabrielle O. De Leon, Ann Tonette B. Fernandez, Christopher Allan F. Tan, Apollo L. Manuel II, Janna Vernice R. Villalon, Cyd Vincent L. Zamora, Rey Donne S. Papa

Abstract

This paper updates the taxonomy and distribution of microcrustacean zooplankton belonging to Cladocera and Copepoda from selected freshwater bodies of Luzon Island, Panay Island and South Cotabato, Mindanao Island in the Philippines whose zooplankton fauna have remained undocumented to date. A total of 31 sampling sites were visited including 11 ponds, 5 lakes, 12 rivers, 1 man-made dam, and 2 streams. Zooplankton samples were collected using 80 μm mesh size plankton nets, and processed and identified in the laboratory. Morphological characteristics were examined under light compound, dissecting, and phase-contrast microscopes for taxonomic identification. Results showed that 13 species were present from the different sampling sites with 7 cladocerans and 6 copepods. Further analyses revealed new locality records for Mesocyclops ogunnus in Lake Taal and Arctodiaptomus dorsalis in Lake Lahit. All species from Lake Holon are new locality records. Results from this study contributed much needed information to make a thorough analysis on the distribution of microcrustacean zooplankton taxa in the Philippines as well as provide the first accounts of microcrustacean zooplankton from Panay Island.

Keywords: Arctodiaptomus dorsalis, Cladocera, Copepoda, Lake Holon, Lake Lahit, Lake Taal, Philippines

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Preliminary Checklist of Marine Gastropods and Bivalves in the Kalayaan Island Group, Palawan, Western Philippines

Short Communication (Taxonomy and Systematics)

by Shemarie E. Hombre, Jeric B. Gonzalez, Darna M. Baguinbin, Rodulf Anthony T. Balisco And Roger G. Dolorosa

Abstract

The Kalayaan Island Group (KIG) in the West Philippine Sea is a threatened rich fishing ground endowed with diverse flora and fauna. However, studies about gastropods and bivalves in KIG are lacking. This preliminary listing of shelled gastropods and bivalves of KIG is based on collections in 2014 and 2016. Seventy eight species of shelled gastropod and bivalves belonging to 28 families were documented. The list includes some threatened species of giant clams and large reef gastropods. Extensive sampling especially in deep areas is expected to enrich the current list. Species inventory of other taxa is also suggested to understand the extent of biological diversity in this wide eco-region.

Keywords: Kalayaan Island Group, West Philippine Sea, bivalves, gastropods, Palawan

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Tagaloblatta kasaysayan n. gen. et sp. (Blattodea: Ectobiidae: Pseudophyllodromiinae), A New Minute Cockroach from Mt. Makiling, Los Baños, Laguna

Research paper (Taxonomy and Systematics)

by Cristian C. Lucañas

Abstract

A new ectobiid cockroach, Tagaloblatta kasaysayan gen. et sp. nov. from Mt. Makiling, Los Baños, Laguna is described. The new genus externally resembles the Neotropical genera Isoldaia Gurney & Roth 1966 and Agmoblatta Gurney & Roth 1966 but genital morphology shows possible close relation with with Sundablatta Hebard 1929, Pseudophyllodromia Brunner 1865, and Allacta Saussure & Zehntner 1895. The genus can be distinguished from the other genera by the minute, non-overlapping tegmina, absence of hind wings and specialized abdominal glands, simple, posteriorly symmetrical subgenital plate and similarly-sized style.

Keywords: biodiversity; cockroach fauna; new genus; new species; Philippines

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Butterflies of the Philippines

Book Review

by Humaida A. Jumalon and Osman A. Jumalon