Volume 9 (2015)

Table of Contents

A critical review of the taxonomic status of Rafflesia philippensis Blanco (Rafflesiaceae) from the Philippines

Review Paper

by Domingo A. Madulid And Esperanza Maribel G. Agoo

Abstract

An appraisal of the protologue of Rafflesia philippensis shows that it is based on collections from two places, i.e. ‘Monte de Majayjay’ in Mt. Banahaw and Basey, Samar made by two different individuals at different times. The protologue is brief, incomplete, vague and replete with errors that make it impossible to visualize the appearance of the species. There are no preserved specimens (holotypes) of these collections. The portion of the protologue that describes the flowers from Basey, Samar matches R. manillana described earlier from the same site. The flowers described from ‘Monte de Majayjay’ cannot be discerned because of the brief and faulty description. Being a mixture of two separate and different collections representing two distinct taxa, R. philippensis is thus an invalid name and an erroneously described species. The proposal to resurrect R. philippensis as the correct name for the species found in Kinabuhayan, Dolores, Quezon, replacing R. banahawensis is erroneous. R. banahawensis is, therefore, the correct name of the species in Mt. Banahaw.

Keywords: Rafflesiaceae, Philippines, Rafflesia, R. philippensis, R. banahawensis, Fr. Manuel Blanco

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A vegetation inventory of a traditional secondary forest (muyong) in Kinakin, Banaue, Ifugao, Northern Luzon, Philippines

Research Paper

by Mark Anthony F. Rabena, Damasa M. Macandog, Virginia C. Cuevas And Ma. Victoria O. Espaldon

Abstract

Traditional forest (muyong) has been recognized as a beneficial component of the rice terraces landscape of Banaue, Ifugao. It supplies irrigation water for the rice paddies (payoh); it provides firewood, timber, medicine and food for the locals; and it shelters various kinds of wildlife species. Threats have been reported to some muyong mainly due to anthropogenic activities and natural causes. Hence, protection of its biodiversity is important to sustain its ecological function and even its socio-cultural value. This study provides a botanical checklist of a muyong patch in Brgy. Kinakin, Banaue, Ifugao. A total of 52 woody species (> 3 cm DBH; > 2 m height) representing 40 genera and 31 families were recorded from the ten 10 m x 10 m quadrats. The most represented families were Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae and Phyllanthaceae while the most represented genera were Macaranga, Ficus, Syzygium, and Desmodium. There were eight species categorized as endemic to the Philippines and one species Alnus japonica (Thunb.) Steud. considered as introduced to the muyong. Also, there is one species (Macaranga caudatifolia Elmer) listed as threatened species in the Philippines. The dominant woody species in the muyongs were Clethra tometella Rolfe ex Dunn. (umog), Weinmannia luzoniensis Vidal (tabangawen), Calophyllum soulattri Burm. f. (bitaor), Lithocarpus submonticolus (Elmer) Rehder (palayon) and Macaranga caudatifolia Elmer. (bayyakot). In general, the observed floral composition of the muyong showed a close resemblance to the tropical lower montane forest formations of the Philippines.

Keywords: Secondary montane forest, Banaue, muyong, vegetation composition, dominant species

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Diversity, exploitation and conservation status of commercially important sea cucumber (Class Holothuria) species in Southeast Asia

Review Paper

by Mark Kevin Devanadera, Rainier Ulrich Velasco, and Mark Louie Lopez

Abstract

Recent trends in sea cucumber fisheries show a marked increase in landings due to a strong increase in demand. The risk of overexploitation at present is high since the case of sea cucumber fisheries in Southeast Asia (SEA) shows a very complex system of interactions, where economic and social factors play important roles. Results showed that most of the countries in SEA Region, particularly Philippines and Indonesia, have the highest number of species harvested every year and placed in highest exporting countries of dried sea cucumber therefore placing them in over-exploited category. Lack of data on basic biological parameters of most species and cultural and sociological non-acceptance of aquaculture as an alternative fishing method for sea cucumber are also to blame for the decline in sea cucumber population in the wild. It is suggested that countries in SEA should implement two important steps to manage existing and future holothurian fisheries. First, the increasing rate of new fisheries had best be reduced to a level where management has time to react to early warning signs of resource depletion. Second, lacking changes in regulation, the catch trajectory and patterns of serial spatial, species and size expansion or depletion are largely predictable. Knowledge of the impending sequence of events can therefore be pre-emptively incorporated into the management of new and existing high-value marine fisheries. Overall, the study highlights the urgent need for better monitoring and reporting of catch, abundance data and proper scientific stock, and ecosystem impact assessment to ensure more sustainable harvesting of sea cucumbers.

Keywords: biodiversity loss, trepang, marine invertebrates, conservation management, tropical fisheries

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Current research status on the biology of pink pigmented facultative methylotrohphic (PPFM) bacteria belonging to the genus Methylobacterium in the Philippines

Review Paper

by Thaddeus M. Carvajal and Jeffrey B. Galvez

Abstract

This paper outlines the current state of knowledge on Methylobacterium spp. or commonly known as Pink Pigmented Facultative Methylotrophic (PPFM) bacteria in the Philippines. This review deals with its isolation and cultural properties, colonial, microscopic, biochemical, physiological and genotypic characterization, diversity and systematics, plant- and human-association, and lastly, the research thrusts and directions applicable in the Philippines.

 

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Genetic variation, advertisement call, and morphometry of Microhyla nilphamariensis from Bangladesh

Research Paper

by Mahmudul Hasan1 Mohammad Abdur Razzaque Sarker, Atsushi Kurabayashi, Mitsuru Kuramoto And Masayuki Sumida

Abstract

The rich biodiversity of frogs and toads in Bangladesh is unexpected considering the rather simple topographic features of the country. Indeed, a new species, Microhyla nilphamariensis, has recently been described from Nilphamari District (northern region), Bangladesh. However, additional genetic, acoustic, and morphometric data are necessary to precisely delineate the newly described species as well as to measure conservation management. In this study we performed genetic, acoustic, and morphometric analyses. Our analyses showed that M. nilphamariensis was genetically divergent from its near congener M. ornata at 3.2% and 10.6% for the 16S rRNA and Cytb genes, respectively. Mean call duration of M. nilphamariensis was 0.42 ± 0.01 s (n = 8) and the call was composed of about 15.13 ± 0.35 rapidly repeating pulses with a pulse rate of 37.9 ± 0.4/s. Dominant frequency bands of M. nilphamariensis were much higher than those of M. ornata and M. fissipes. Principal component analyses showed that M. nilphamariensis differed from its near congeners in having shorter first and second fingers, shorter first toe, and longer inner and outer metatarsal tubercles relative to the snout-vent length.

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A modified sieve dish for easier preparation of microscope slide mounts for taxonomic studies of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

Research Paper

by Normandy M. Barbecho and Ireneo L. Lit, Jr.

Abstract

A modified dish that serves as a sieve for specimens that undergo series of chemical treatments during the preparation of specimens for microscope slide mounts is described and illustrated. The dish serves as a filter for draining fluids. It is assembled using simple materials, namely: the cap of a 15 ml centrifuge tube with the closed end perforated, a glass cloning cylinder, and a piece of fine-mesh fabric (i.e., synthetic satin ribbon) that is slightly larger than the diameter of the cloning cylinder. The use of the modified dish facilitates slide-mounting of more specimens, including crawlers or their exuviae, per batch within a shorter period of time.

Keywords: armored scales, Coccoidea, Coccomorpha, Diaspididae, microtechnique, scale insect taxonomy
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Growth rate, malachite green biodegradation and carotenoid production of Gordonia terrae USTCMS 1066

Research Paper

by Edward A. Quinto, Michael C. Valdez, Jose Francis V. Abrantes, Eufemio G. Barcelon and Corazon A. Menguit

Abstract

The Gordonia bacteria are known for their exceptional ability to biodegrade a plethora of organic compounds and to produce various carotenoid pigments. Gordonia terrae USTCMS 1066, an orange hyperpigmented actinomycete isolated from a contaminated agar plate culture of Vibrio fischeri USTCMS 1026, grew rapidly in tryptic soy broth (Merck) supplemented with 0.5% yeast extract and yielded carotenoid content of 207 μg/g dry weight. It exhibited a growth rate of 0.0026 min-1 (38 min. doubling time) at 30 o C with 200 rpm orbital shaking. This strain also grew in nutrient broth (Merck) containing a high concentration of 0.05% (500 mg/L) malachite green and significantly biodegraded the initially bluish triphenylamine dye by 99.8% to colorless after 3 days of incubation at room temperature without shaking.

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Freshwater Diatom Flora of Taiwan, Vol. I, iii

Book Review

Wu Jiunn-Tzong, Bakthavachalam Babu, Chuan-Ling Chou and Sundaraju Jothi Saraswathi. 2011. Freshwater Diatom Flora of Taiwan, Vol. I, iii+392 pages and Vol. II, ii+356 pages, hardcover. Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei. ISBN 978-986-02-7105-8 (vol. I), ISBN 978-986-02-7106-5 (vol. II), NT$1500 per volume. For information – biodiv@gate.sinica.edu.tw, http://biodiv.sinica.edu.tw

Rafflesia of the Philippines: A story of adventure, appetite and affinity

Book Review

David, Mabi, Agnes C. de Jesus and Julie F. Barcelona. 2011. Rafflesia of the Philippines: A Story of Adventure, Appetite, and Affinity. Energy Development Corporation, Pasig City. 180 pages, hardback. ISBN 978-971-91806-5-4. Price unknown, for more information – pubrels@energy.com.ph, www.energy.com.ph

Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology ISSN 1908-6865