Volume 3 Number 1 (2009)

Table of Contents

An enumeration of the woody plants of Cantipla forest fragments, Cebu Island, Philippines

Research Paper, pages 1-7

by Geofe O. Cadiz & Inocencio E. Buot, Jr.


Woody plants in Cantipla forest fragments, Barangay Tabunan, Cebu Island, Philippines, were inventoried from three 200 m2 plots. A total of 45 species were recorded representing 37 genera of 26 families. The most represented families were Euphorbiaceae (5 species) followed by Moraceae (4 species) and Rubiaceae (4 species) while the most represented genus was Ficus (4 species). The fragmented forest is also a habitat of the critically endangered Cinnamomum cebuense Kost. (Lauraceae), locally known as kalingag. The flora of the Cantipla forest fragments is typical of a lowland rainforest vegetation. There is an urgent need to examine and analyze the dynamics of this important ecological heritage and biodiversity corridor so that appropriate forest and environmental management strategies by the local government and the community will be identified and implemented.

Keywords: floristic composition, tropical mountain, lowland forest, Cebu watershed, Cantipla forest, Cinnamomum cebuense

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Isolation and characterization of pink pigmented, facultative methylotrophic (PPFM) bacteria from leaves of neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

Research Paper, pages 8-16

by Rinki Kumar and Anthony C. Lee


A total of twenty isolates of pink-pigmented, facultative methylotrophic bacteria were obtained from the leaves of neem. All isolates exhibited pink to orange-pink pigmentation, entire margin, round colonies with a smooth glistening surface, and convex elevation. Most of the colonies were opaque with butyrous consistency. Staining revealed rod to coccobacilli shaped, Gram negative cells, containing poly-β-hydroxybutyrate granules. Biochemical analyses showed that all were catalase positive; majority of them were positive for citrate utilization, urease and oxidase activities but were negative for amylase activity. They can be cultivated on ammonium mineral salt (AMS) agar with methanol, glycerol peptone agar (GPA) and tryptic soy agar (TSA) with variations in colonial morphology. Based on the observed characteristics, the isolates obtained belong to the genus Methylobacterium.

Keywords: leaf bacteria, PPFM bacteria, Methylobacterium

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A taxonomic account of lizards along established trails in Mts. Palay-palay Mataas-na-gulod Protected Landscape, Luzon Island, Philippines

Research Paper, pages 17-28

by Ronaldo D. Lagat


Twenty three species of lizards were recorded in Mts. Palaypalay-Mataas-Na-Gulod Protected Landscape. Belonging to four families; Agamidae is represented by three species, Gekkonidae with seven species, Scincidae with twelve species and Varanidae with one species. Fifty two percent of the species in Mts. Palaypalay-Mataas-Na-Gulod Protected Landscape is endemic which is dominated by forest species. Lizard diversity decreases with increase in elevation. Three major habitats (forest, stream and human habitation) were observed to be occupied by the species and habitat overlaps were observed as some species can occupy all habitat types.

Keywords: Mts. Palaypalay-Mataas-Na-Gulod Protected Landscape, lizards, Gekkonidae

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Two newailed pseudomonad bacteriophages from the Philippines

Research Paper, pages 29-39

by PB Buiser, JG Baliling, RR Esguerra,AG Galut,SD Oliveros, DM Dela Cruz-Papa


Two Pseudomonas aeruginosa phages, MB07 and MB08, were isolated from a sewage treatment plant in Bagong Lipunan Tenement and Condo (BLC) in Taguig, Metro, Manila. The phages were isolated and purified using the Agar Surface method by Adams. Their plaques showed their lytic activity against P.aeruginosa strains, NSRI and USTCMS 1028 with plaque size ranging from 2.0-3.0 mm in diameter. After testing the host range against 3 strains of P. fluorescens, 1 strain of P. putida and 2 strains of P.aeruginosa, both phages were only able to cross-infect the host of the other, exhibiting specificity to P.aeruginosa. Both phages were resistant to inactivation by heat, pH and CHCl3. Electron Microscopy showed the phages as tailed and thus classified under the Order Caudovirales. Furtehrmore, MB07, with its long, contractile tail and MB08 with its contractile tail were classified as members of the Family Siphoviridae and Myoviridae, respectively. These P.aeruginosa phages are the first to be isolated from a sewage treatment plant in
the Philippines.

Keywords : Bacteriophage, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Siphoviridae, sewage, Myoviridae

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Preliminary report on the anurans of Mts. Palay-palay Mataas-na-gulod Protected Landscape, Luzon Island, Philippines

Research Paper, pages 40-56

by Rubie Maranan Causaren


I provide information on the anurans of Mts. Palay-Palay Mataas-na-Gulod Protected Landscape (MPPMNGPL) and its immediate vicinities based on field surveys conducted on accessible localities in 1998, 2006, and 2009. A total of 14 species representing four anuran families in 10 genera were recorded from the area. Baseline data on species richness, habitat and altitudinal distribution, and natural history of anurans are presented. The anuran assemblage exhibited high levels of endemicity (57%). Anurans were recorded in elevations from as low as 40 masl to more than 600 masl with the non-endemic species generally distributed in the lowlands while most of the endemics were restricted to higher elevations. Majority of the non-endemic species were usually associated with human-modified habitats while most of the endemic species were restricted to forest habitats. Eight microhabitat types were identified and a large proportion of anurans occurred in bodies of water and forest floor litter.

Keywords : Mts. Palay-Palay Mataas-na-Gulod Protected Landscape, Cavite province, Luzon Island, amphibian fauna, herpetofauna, distribution patterns, species richness, anuran assemblage

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Research Papers

Isolation And Characterization Of Purple Nonsulfur Bacteria (PNSB) From A Rice Paddy Soil In Bulacan, Philippines (57-67)

by GL Montano, JS Chan, RE Jarabelo, ABI Pastor, And TEE Dela Cruz


Purple nonsulfur bacteria (PNSB) are phenotypically diverse group of microorganisms and are known for their biological nitrogen fixation in flooded rice paddies. Our research study, then, aimed to isolate and characterize PNSB and determine their population count. Rice paddy soil samples were collected from San Jose del Monte, Bulacan, and were inoculated into completely filled culture vials pre-filled with different enrichment media, e.g. Larsen’s medium, Van Niel’s medium, and Acetate Yeast Extract (AYE) medium. Following incubation for 4 weeks under an incandescent bulb, only the AYE medium resulted to bright “red bloom” indicating growth of PNSB. Morphological and cultural characterization of the isolated PNSB showed pinpoint, red colonies and Gram negative, non-spore forming, thin, elongated (0.5 x 2.0 μm) rods. In vivo absorption spectrum using spectrophotometer showed the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids. The isolated PNSB utilized pyruvate, malate, glucose, lactate, citrate and soluble starch as its carbon sources, and ammonium sulfate, peptone and yeast extract as nitrogen sources. Preliminary
identification identified the PNSB isolates as Rhodopseudomonas sp. MPN estimated low number of PNSB (2 cells per ml) in the collected rice paddy soil.

Keywords : purple nonsulfur bacteria, Rhodopseudomonas sp., enrichment culture, Most Probable Number (MPN), bacterial identification, rice paddy soil

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Recent collecting efforts of Philippine flora and fauna based on a critical assessment of the published literature (2002-2005): some recommendations for policy re-evaluation and reforms

Review Paper, pages 68-96

by Lawrence M. Liao

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Status of the myxomycete collection at the UPLB Museum of Natural History (UPLBMNH) mycological herbarium

Review Paper, pages 97-111

by TEE Dela Cruz, RV Kuhn, AO Javier, CM Parra1 And TMH Quimio


The Philippines is considered one of the world’s megahotspots of biodiversity. Among the country’s fungal species, about 4,698 species belonging to 1,031 genera are currently known or described, of which only a small number of myxomycetes were included. At the UPLB-MNH Mycological Herbarium, one of the country’s premier depository institutions of fungal collections, only about 446 myxomycete specimens were recorded. In this review paper, progress made in myxomycete diversity in the Philippines is reported. The conservation status of the myxomycetes specimens deposited at the UPLB-MNH Mycological Herbarium is also assessed. Furthermore, hindrances to the discovery of new myxomycete species and challenges encountered by local researchers are also discussed.

Keywords: myxomycetes, slime molds, biodiversity, conservation

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